Interpreters convert spoken or sign language statements from one language to another. Interpreting involves listening to, understanding and memorising content in the original 'source' language, then reproducing statements, questions and speeches in a different 'target' language. This is often done in only one direction, normally into the interpreter's native language, but may be on a two-way basis.
Interpreters facilitate effective communication between clients in the following settings:
large conferences and formal meetings;
business functions such as smaller meetings, exhibitions and product launches;
criminal justice proceedings, known as public service interpreting or PSI, including police and probation service interviews, court hearings, solicitor interviews, arbitration hearings and immigration tribunals;
community-based events and assignments within the education, health and social services sectors.
Typical work activities
Interpreting can be carried out in various ways:
in person, whether in the same room or from a nearby conference booth;
by telephone, when the interpreter is in a different location from the speakers;
via video conferencing and internet-based technologies.
There are several types of interpreting.
Simultaneous interpretation (SI): working in a team at a conference or large meeting, the interpreter sits in a soundproof booth (there are separate booths for each conference language) and immediately converts what is being said, so listeners hear the interpretation through an earpiece while the speaker is still speaking. A variation of this is whispering, or chuchotage, where the interpreter sits near one person or a small group and whispers the translation as the speaker carries on. Sign language interpreting is also usually simultaneous.
Consecutive interpretation (CI): more common in smaller meetings and discussions, the speaker will pause after each sentence or point and wait while the interpreter translates what is being said into the appropriate language.
Liaison interpretation, also known as ad hoc and relay: this is a type of two-way interpreting, where the interpreter translates every few sentences while the speaker pauses. This is common in telephone interpreting as well as in legal and health situations. The interpreter supports people who are not fluent in the language being used to ensure their understanding.
Sign language interpretation: interpreters convert spoken statements into sign language and vice versa. Interpreting from one sign language to another is a new area.
The following work activities are likely in any interpreting setting:
assimilating speakers' words quickly, including jargon and acronyms;
analysing sentences expressed in one language and explaining them using another language;
building up specialist vocabulary banks;
writing notes to aid memory;
using microphones and headsets;
preparing paperwork - considering agendas before meetings, or lectures/speeches when received in advance;
using the internet to conduct research;
organising workload and liaising with internal departments, agencies and/or employers;
working to a professional code of ethics covering confidentiality and impartiality.